Lenins testament, twopart document dictated by vladimir i. His health failing, lenin died in gorki, with joseph stalin succeeding him as the preeminent figure in the soviet government. Stalin right seated next to his predecessor as soviet leader, lenin. Stalin was given the honour of organizing his funeral. Lenin was more liberal than stalin who allowed some people in business to have their private business. The details of this evolution are unknownbut its general direction is known to the party, the bolshevistcommunist party of lenin and of his successor, stalin. Played a much smaller role in the revolution than trotsky. Stalin was placed inside the tomb, in an open coffin, under glass, near lenin s body.
Between lenin and stalin, which of them are the better. Upon lenin s death, stalin was officially hailed as his successor as the leader of the ruling communist party and of the soviet union itself. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. I think that in a sense stalin and all other bolsheviks leaders were the creatures of lenin. Buy from lenin to stalin 2nd revised edition by victor serge isbn. Though frequently people focus on stalin s repression in the 30s. In the first years of the bolshevik regime, however, few thought of stalin as a potential leader. Joseph stalin, secretarygeneral of the communist party of the soviet union 192253 and premier of the soviet state 194153, who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the soviet union and transformed it into a major world power. Stalin played an important but secondary role in the october revolution. A compromise was reached, in which the federation would be renamed the union of soviet socialist republics ussr. It depends on what you are looking after in a leader.
If it is the ability to reach difficult goals no matter the cost, then your man is stalin. In the decades after his death, the soviet union would hold up lenin s writings as works of philosophical genius, but this glorification constituted nothing more than empty propaganda. It contained guideline proposals for changes in the soviet political system and concise portrait assessments of. His great capacity in this key phase of leadership was graphically shown, among other major campaigns, by the partys great drive to carry through the first fiveyear plan. The central thesis of robert gellatelys work lenin, stalin, and hitler. Lenin was not above violence although he did aspire for the soviet union to be a peaceful and democratic institution. In a party dominated by intellectuals and rhetoricians, stalin stood for a practical approach to revolution, devoid of ideological sentiment. Lenin worked as a translator, and stalin worked in an observatory. After lenin s death, in january 1924, stalin promoted an extravagant, quasibyzantine cult of the deceased leader. Later even lenin s wife nadezhda krupskaya came to stalin s defense, despite earlier being a supporter of zinoviev. Russia more than thirty years ago, is its claim to be. The rise of stalin was as clever and manipulative as it was unexpected. Marx created a critique of capitalism which today we call marxism or marxist theory which suggested that classbased capitalism would inevitably exploit laboring classes to the point where they were so impoverished that they would be compelled t.
If the bolshevik revolution isas some people have called itthe most significant political event of the 20th century, then lenin must for good or ill be regarded as the centurys most significant political leader. Stalins body removed from lenins tomb after his death in 1953, soviet leader joseph stalins remains were embalmed and put on display next to those of vladimir lenin. Widely considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the soviet union until its dissolution in 1991. Victor serge wrote from lenin to stalin in december 1936, several months after he had been deported from the soviet union, after having been internally exiled to orenburg, for being a member of the left opposition, in other words a trotskyist. Stalin took lenin s ideas to their logical conclusion. How photos became a weapon in stalin s great purge. He shows how soviet policy was informed by both an anticolonial. Hundreds of thousands of people came to see the generalissimo in the mausoleum.
Vladimir lenins bolsheviks came to power in 1917 promising to establish a democratic, equal society out of the ruins of tsarism. Lenin was the founder of the ussr while stalin ruled over the readymade system. America, west ignored warnings about stalin realclearhistory. In november 1953, seven months after stalin s death, lenin s tomb was reopened. What is the connection between karl marx, lenin, and stalin. Against lenin s wishes, he was given a lavish funeral and his body was embalmed and put on display. Robert conquest stressed that stalin s purges were not contrary to the principles of leninism, but rather a natural consequence of the system established by lenin, who personally ordered the killing of local groups of class enemy hostages. Stalin puts supporters into top jobs, isolates trotsky. The age of social catastrophe, is that the advent of lenin and the bolshevik party to power in russia in 1917 directly led to the nightmare societies of germany and the soviet union in. The most striking peculiarity of the soviet regime, established in. Lenin s testament is the name given to a document purportedly dictated by vladimir lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923. Tauris, 2018, alun thomas examines the experiences of kazakh and kyrgyz nomads in the nep new economic policy period and demonstrates the soviet states treatment of nomads to be far complex and pragmatic.
For stalin that would have been the end of stalinism. Once power was in bolshevik hands, the party leadership gladly left to stalin tasks involving the dry details of party and state administration. Archpriest of leninism, stalin also promoted his own cult in the following year by having the city of tsaritsyn renamed stalingrad now volgograd. Lenin, who was in semiretirement after suffering his second stroke, died the following year, making way for stalin to succeed him as leader of the soviet. A woman is flanked by portraits of soviet leader joseph stalin and russian revolutionary vladimir lenin as the russian communist party rallies. Hitlers national socialism and mussolinis corporate state. Maria ulyanovas account of this matter is of great value as it answers the scandalous charge levelled by trotsky that stalin had arranged for lenin to be administered poison. Sensing his impending death, he also gave criticism of bolshevik leaders zinoviev, kamenev, trotsky, bukharin, pyatakov and stalin. Lenin and stalin happen to be the most prominent and influential leaders of modern soviet union. It was stalin who completed the work begun by lenin, the turning of marxism, a revolutionary doctrine into its opposite an authoritative ideology of state capitalism on a par and at times competing with other state ideologies, i. In the power struggle that followed vladimir lenin s death in 1924, the intellectual sophistication.
It could be argued that lenin was the one who started it and set the whole thing in motion, with stalin merely being his disciple lenin is a quintessential example of the 20th century totalitarian ruler. Even after suffering a stroke, lenin fought stalin from the isolation of his bed. Today, we know joseph stalin as a ruthless dictator who ruled the soviet union from the late 1920s until his death in 1953. After stalin s death, soviet citizens began to acknowledge that he was responsible for the deaths of millions of their countrymen. What were the key differences between lenin and stalin. Lenin and stalin as mass leaders marxists internet archive. Vladimir lenin was a russian communist revolutionary and head of the bolshevik party who rose to prominence during the russian revolution of 1917.
Trotsky flees to mexico, is killed by a stalinist agent. A key argument in paradoxes of power revolved around stalin s relationship to lenin. In the most basic comparison we can clearly see a difference in ow each of them view the use of violence and force. If it is hedging against risk and playing safe, its stalin too. While stalin ruled for almost three decades and was the successor of lenin, it was lenin who remains the father figure and a creator of modern day communist ussr which ended in 1990 though. The satellites then in the revolutionary planetarium were zinoviev, kamenev, radek, bukharin and perhaps kalinin. Lenin turned to stalin for help when he came to the decision that in the event of his becoming paralysed he wished to end his life by consuming potassium cyanide. The repression under lenin during the civil war was just as bloody. He recovered and was able to resume work, though only on a limited scale. He wrote that the evidence of these war years proved that stalin was a great man in the grand style. In the testament, lenin proposed changes to the structure of the soviet governing bodies.
In january 19, stalin whom lenin referred to as the wonderful georgianvisited him, and they discussed the future of nonrussian ethnic groups in the empire. Catherine merridale looks at the differences between the two leaders, in particular their attitudes towards violence. When this plan became known internationally, it evoked a chorus of sneers from bourgeois. How joseph stalin starved millions in the ukrainian famine. Due to the ailing health of both lenin and his wife, they moved to the rural town of bialy dunajec, before heading to bern for nadya to have surgery on her goitre. Lenin, trotsky, stalin columbia university press, 1992. I am sure that most of them could not even imagine that it was possible to seize the power in the russian empire. Victor serge wrote from lenin to stalin in december 1936, several months after he had been deported from the soviet union, after having been internally. The denial of the existence of lenins testament remained one of the cornerstones of soviet historiography until stalins death on march 5, 1953.1450 354 256 1332 1202 645 1289 1073 447 1214 1385 256 395 330 242 415 1301 1232 322 1186 856 890 1519 608 1273 723 1145 49 8 185 1011 1231 1162 1344